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I changed the repeated use of "Technical City Hall" to the German name of the building, leaving the first translation of the name in place. The reason I did that, is that the term/name "Technisches Rathaus" IS the name of the building. Translating the name into English constantly, aside from the first instance just doesn't serve any purpose.

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Revision as of 00:11, 3 April 2024
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== History ==== History ==
[[File:Frankfurt "*****" Main-Braubachstrasse Domstrasse-Bauliche Entwicklung und Ueberlagerung Technisches Rathaus-Ravenstein1862.jpg|thumb|A map of the old town from 1862 with overlay representing the future developments and demolitions. (chromolithography by Friedrich August Ravenstein). The yellow and green marked buildings were demolished as early as the 19th century, the purple buildings are those demolished to make way for the Braubachstrasse, created in 1904. The areas marked in dark red were torn down in 1927. An overlay of the 2007 demolished technical town hall can also be seen.]][[File:Frankfurt "*****" Main-Braubachstrasse Domstrasse-Bauliche Entwicklung und Ueberlagerung Technisches Rathaus-Ravenstein1862.jpg|thumb|A map of the old town from 1862 with overlay representing the future developments and demolitions. (chromolithography by Friedrich August Ravenstein). The yellow and green marked buildings were demolished as early as the 19th century, the purple buildings are those demolished to make way for the Braubachstrasse, created in 1904. The areas marked in dark red were torn down in 1927. An overlay of the 2007 demolished Technisches Rathaus can also be seen.]]
[[File:Frankfurt 1945 June destructions after bombing raids old town aerial.JPG|thumb|The destroyed old town in June 1945]][[File:Frankfurt 1945 June destructions after bombing raids old town aerial.JPG|thumb|The destroyed old town in June 1945]]
During the Second World War, the [[Middle Ages|medieval]] old town of Frankfurt "*****" Main, until then one of the best preserved in Central Europe, was almost completely destroyed by bombing. Only a few historical buildings remained, and in the [[History of Germany (1945–1990)|post-war]] period, other damaged buildings were also demolished, mostly in favour of "car-friendly" traffic planning. There were very few external reconstructions of buildings and the majority of the former old town was rebuilt in the style of the 1950s, largely abandoning the historic street network.During the Second World War, the [[Middle Ages|medieval]] old town of Frankfurt "*****" Main, until then one of the best preserved in Central Europe, was almost completely destroyed by bombing. Only a few historical buildings remained, and in the [[History of Germany (1945–1990)|post-war]] period, other damaged buildings were also demolished, mostly in favour of "car-friendly" traffic planning. There were very few external reconstructions of buildings and the majority of the former old town was rebuilt in the style of the 1950s, largely abandoning the historic street network.
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In 1966, the Frankfurt subway was extended under the old town. When the Dom/Römer underground station was built in 1970–71, it destroyed a large part of the oldest settlement floor in Frankfurt (which had not yet been archaeologically examined) due to the open construction method,In 1966, the Frankfurt subway was extended under the old town. When the Dom/Römer underground station was built in 1970–71, it destroyed a large part of the oldest settlement floor in Frankfurt (which had not yet been archaeologically examined) due to the open construction method,
Subsequently, after years of discussion, the Technical City Hall was created in 1972–1974 as the seat of the technical offices of the city administration. Five old town houses on Braubachstrasse that had survived the war were demolished to excavate the construction pit. The building, built in the brutalist architectural style, dominated the former old town, in a style very different from that of the small-scale buildings in the area. The construction costs totalled DM 93 million.<ref>{{cite web|title=Wortprotokoll über die 19. Plenarsitzung der Stadtverordnetenversammlung "*****" Donnerstag, dem 15. Dezember 1994 (14.03 Uhr bis 23.40 Uhr)|periodical=PARLIS – Parlamentsinformationssystem der Stadtverordnetenversammlung Frankfurt "*****" Main|url=http://www.stvv.frankfurt.de/PARLIS...M=1&K=WOP_19_15-12-1994&R=Y&U=1|access-date=7 August 2011}}</ref>Subsequently, after years of discussion, the ''Technisches Rathaus'' was created in 1972–1974 as the seat of the technical offices of the city administration. Five old town houses on Braubachstrasse that had survived the war were demolished to excavate the construction pit. The building, built in the brutalist architectural style, dominated the former old town, in a style very different from that of the small-scale buildings in the area. The construction costs totalled DM 93 million.<ref>{{cite web|title=Wortprotokoll über die 19. Plenarsitzung der Stadtverordnetenversammlung "*****" Donnerstag, dem 15. Dezember 1994 (14.03 Uhr bis 23.40 Uhr)|periodical=PARLIS – Parlamentsinformationssystem der Stadtverordnetenversammlung Frankfurt "*****" Main|url=http://www.stvv.frankfurt.de/PARLIS...M=1&K=WOP_19_15-12-1994&R=Y&U=1|access-date=7 August 2011}}</ref>
<gallery widths="170" heights="170"><gallery widths="170" heights="170">
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=== Initial development ====== Initial development ===
[[File:Technischesrathaus-ffm001.jpg|thumb|Technical City Hall, 2007]][[File:Technischesrathaus-ffm001.jpg|thumb|Technisches Rathaus, 2007]]
In 2004, developers discussed plans for renovating the 30-year-old technical town hall.<ref name="faz.net-2004">{{cite news |date=8 November 2004 |title=Stadtplanung – Umbau statt Abriß – neue Pläne für Technisches Rathaus in Frankfurt |newspaper=faz.net |url=https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...technisches-rathaus-in-frankfurt-1194573.html |access-date=11 May 2018}}</ref>In 2004, developers discussed plans for renovating the 30-year-old technical town hall.<ref name="faz.net-2004">{{cite news |date=8 November 2004 |title=Stadtplanung – Umbau statt Abriß – neue Pläne für Technisches Rathaus in Frankfurt |newspaper=faz.net |url=https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...technisches-rathaus-in-frankfurt-1194573.html |access-date=11 May 2018}}</ref>
[[File:Technisches-Rathaus-Frankfurt 2007 LWS0780.jpg|thumb|The facades of the technical town hall, July 2008]][[File:Technisches-Rathaus-Frankfurt 2007 LWS0780.jpg|thumb|The facades of the Technisches Rathaus, July 2008]]
The city council then decided in December 2004 to carry out an urban planning ideas competition with the option of either renovation of the current building or demolition and subsequent small-scale development in its place. There was demand for a return of the small-scale structures that used to form the Gothic old town.<ref>{{cite web|title=Etatantrag E 187 2004 vom 24. November 2004 (letzte Aktualisierung des Sachstandes: 21. Dezember 2004)|periodical=PARLIS – Parlamentsinformationssystem der Stadtverordnetenversammlung Frankfurt "*****" Main|url=http://www.stvv.frankfurt.de/PARLISLINK/DDW?W=DOK_NAME='E_187_2004'|access-date=7 August 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Wortprotokoll über die 39. Plenarsitzung der Stadtverordnetenversammlung "*****" Donnerstag, dem 16. Dezember 1994 (16.02 Uhr bis 21.45 Uhr)|periodical=PARLIS – Parlamentsinformationssystem der Stadtverordnetenversammlung Frankfurt "*****" Main|url=http://www.stvv.frankfurt.de/PARLIS...M=1&K=WOP_39_16-12-2004&R=Y&U=1|access-date=7 August 2011}}</ref> The councils competition was considered an unusual procedure. The Chamber of Architects in Wiesbaden opposed the competition approach and considered the obligation to submit two drafts impractical and called for a clear decision by politicians. The competition, originally announced for January 2005, ultimately did not take place.<ref>Matthias Alexander: [https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...-auf-dem-weg-zur-grossen-loesung-1233469.html ''Stadtplanung – Beim Technischen Rathaus auf dem Weg zur großen Lösung.''] In: ''faz.net'', 4.&nbsp;September 2005.</ref>The city council then decided in December 2004 to carry out an urban planning ideas competition with the option of either renovation of the current building or demolition and subsequent small-scale development in its place. There was demand for a return of the small-scale structures that used to form the Gothic old town.<ref>{{cite web|title=Etatantrag E 187 2004 vom 24. November 2004 (letzte Aktualisierung des Sachstandes: 21. Dezember 2004)|periodical=PARLIS – Parlamentsinformationssystem der Stadtverordnetenversammlung Frankfurt "*****" Main|url=http://www.stvv.frankfurt.de/PARLISLINK/DDW?W=DOK_NAME='E_187_2004'|access-date=7 August 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Wortprotokoll über die 39. Plenarsitzung der Stadtverordnetenversammlung "*****" Donnerstag, dem 16. Dezember 1994 (16.02 Uhr bis 21.45 Uhr)|periodical=PARLIS – Parlamentsinformationssystem der Stadtverordnetenversammlung Frankfurt "*****" Main|url=http://www.stvv.frankfurt.de/PARLIS...M=1&K=WOP_39_16-12-2004&R=Y&U=1|access-date=7 August 2011}}</ref> The councils competition was considered an unusual procedure. The Chamber of Architects in Wiesbaden opposed the competition approach and considered the obligation to submit two drafts impractical and called for a clear decision by politicians. The competition, originally announced for January 2005, ultimately did not take place.<ref>Matthias Alexander: [https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...-auf-dem-weg-zur-grossen-loesung-1233469.html ''Stadtplanung – Beim Technischen Rathaus auf dem Weg zur großen Lösung.''] In: ''faz.net'', 4.&nbsp;September 2005.</ref>
In May 2005, the political powers decided not to pursue the competition any further. They nevertheless insisted that the following requirements be in place for any further urban planning competition: small-scale buildings with facades and roofs need to fit harmoniously into the old town, housing 20,000 m<sup>2</sup> of gross floor space within the property boundaries of the Technical City Hall, with overbuilding of the archaeological garden, continued use of the archaeological site Garden with the remains of the Royal Palatinate and a restoration of the old "coronation path" street layout between the cathedral and the Roman. The name "Coronation Trail", an alternative name for the alley ''market'' (also known as the ''Old Market''), which existed until 1945, arose from the fact that a total of 16 coronation ceremonies for Roman-German kings were held in Frankfurt from the 14th to the 18th century. 20 offices took part in the urban planning competition.<ref name="faz.net">[https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...-technischen-rathauses-gesichert-1256606.html ''Abriß des Technischen Rathauses gesichert.''] In: ''faz.net'', 25 July 2005.</ref>In May 2005, the political powers decided not to pursue the competition any further. They nevertheless insisted that the following requirements be in place for any further urban planning competition: small-scale buildings with facades and roofs need to fit harmoniously into the old town, housing 20,000 m<sup>2</sup> of gross floor space within the property boundaries of the ''Technisches Rathaus'', with overbuilding of the archaeological garden, continued use of the archaeological site Garden with the remains of the Royal Palatinate and a restoration of the old "coronation path" street layout between the cathedral and the Roman. The name "Coronation Trail", an alternative name for the alley ''market'' (also known as the ''Old Market''), which existed until 1945, arose from the fact that a total of 16 coronation ceremonies for Roman-German kings were held in Frankfurt from the 14th to the 18th century. 20 offices took part in the urban planning competition.<ref name="faz.net">[https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...-technischen-rathauses-gesichert-1256606.html ''Abriß des Technischen Rathauses gesichert.''] In: ''faz.net'', 25 July 2005.</ref>
In August 2005, an application was submitted suggesting the reconstruction of some important historic buildings that had been destroyed in the war. However, the winning design chosen by the Frankfurt office KSP Engel and Zimmermann in September 2005 met only a few of these requirements. In this plan, the "Coronation Trail" was not going to follow the original route, but was to be built in a straight diagonal line from the Stone house to the cathedral tower. The plan involved construction of large scale buildings and a trapezoidal shaped square was planned at the level of the archaeological garden, which, like the diagonal to the cathedral tower, had never existed in a similar form in Frankfurt's urban history.<ref>{{cite web|title=Neue Altstadt – KSP gewinnen Wettbewerb für Zentrum von Frankfurt (19. September 2005)|periodical=BauNetz|url=http://www.baunetz.de/meldungen/Mel...ntrum_von_Frankfurt_21347.html|access-date=16 August 2009|date=19 September 2005}}</ref>In August 2005, an application was submitted suggesting the reconstruction of some important historic buildings that had been destroyed in the war. However, the winning design chosen by the Frankfurt office KSP Engel and Zimmermann in September 2005 met only a few of these requirements. In this plan, the "Coronation Trail" was not going to follow the original route, but was to be built in a straight diagonal line from the Stone house to the cathedral tower. The plan involved construction of large scale buildings and a trapezoidal shaped square was planned at the level of the archaeological garden, which, like the diagonal to the cathedral tower, had never existed in a similar form in Frankfurt's urban history.<ref>{{cite web|title=Neue Altstadt – KSP gewinnen Wettbewerb für Zentrum von Frankfurt (19. September 2005)|periodical=BauNetz|url=http://www.baunetz.de/meldungen/Mel...ntrum_von_Frankfurt_21347.html|access-date=16 August 2009|date=19 September 2005}}</ref>
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In September 2007, the city council approved a plan for the reconstruction of additional buildings, provided that private investors could fund them.<ref>[https://www.faz.net/artikel/C30214/...ser-sollen-rekonstruiert-werden-30074346.html ''Sieben Altstadthäuser sollen rekonstruiert werden.''] In: ''faz.net'', 7 May 2007.</ref><ref>[https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...zukunft-der-frankfurter-altstadt-1283774.html ''FAZ.NET-Spezial: Die Zukunft der Frankfurter Altstadt.''] In: ''faz.net'', 25 June 2008.</ref>In September 2007, the city council approved a plan for the reconstruction of additional buildings, provided that private investors could fund them.<ref>[https://www.faz.net/artikel/C30214/...ser-sollen-rekonstruiert-werden-30074346.html ''Sieben Altstadthäuser sollen rekonstruiert werden.''] In: ''faz.net'', 7 May 2007.</ref><ref>[https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...zukunft-der-frankfurter-altstadt-1283774.html ''FAZ.NET-Spezial: Die Zukunft der Frankfurter Altstadt.''] In: ''faz.net'', 25 June 2008.</ref>
The move of the city offices from the Technical City Hall was replanned for autumn 2009, and the demolition began in 2010.The move of the city offices from the ''Technisches Rathaus'' was replanned for autumn 2009, and the demolition began in 2010.
In July 2009, an architecture competition for the development of the archaeological garden, called "Stadthaus "*****" Markt", was launched. In addition, the Dom-Römer GmbH was founded as an urban company for the development of the Dom-Römer area.<ref>Matthias Alexander: [https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...et-baugesellschaft-fuer-altstadt-1828489.html ''Stadt Frankfurt gründet Baugesellschaft für Altstadt.''] In: ''faz.net'', 10 July 2009.</ref> According to an initial estimate by Dom-Römer GmbH, the cost of building the old town was €95 million, of which €20 million was due to the demolition of the town hall.<ref>Matthias Alexander: [https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...kt-kostet-gut-100-millionen-euro-1871228.html ''Altstadtprojekt kostet gut 100 Millionen Euro.''] In: ''faz.net'', 10 October 2009.</ref>In July 2009, an architecture competition for the development of the archaeological garden, called "Stadthaus "*****" Markt", was launched. In addition, the Dom-Römer GmbH was founded as an urban company for the development of the Dom-Römer area.<ref>Matthias Alexander: [https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...et-baugesellschaft-fuer-altstadt-1828489.html ''Stadt Frankfurt gründet Baugesellschaft für Altstadt.''] In: ''faz.net'', 10 July 2009.</ref> According to an initial estimate by Dom-Römer GmbH, the cost of building the old town was €95 million, of which €20 million was due to the demolition of the town hall.<ref>Matthias Alexander: [https://www.faz.net/aktuell/rhein-m...kt-kostet-gut-100-millionen-euro-1871228.html ''Altstadtprojekt kostet gut 100 Millionen Euro.''] In: ''faz.net'', 10 October 2009.</ref>
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[[File:Haus-Zur-Goldenen-Waage-2018-Ffm-830-833.jpg|thumb|The most complex individual project was the reconstruction of the [[Haus zur goldenen Waage]] (January 2018).]][[File:Haus-Zur-Goldenen-Waage-2018-Ffm-830-833.jpg|thumb|The most complex individual project was the reconstruction of the [[Haus zur goldenen Waage]] (January 2018).]]
Public criticism and approval accompanied the project from the start. The lines of argumentation often followed the same pattern as since the beginning of the reconstruction debate immediately after the destruction. Dieter Bartetzko compares the old town with an unfathomably deep fountain that draws on the myths of the past and gives life in the present. He recalls that the fountain on the chicken market was drilled as early as Roman times and that the Carolingian people were probably already aware that they lived on historical ground. This explains why Frankfurt was referred to in its first documentary mention in 794 as a ''locus celeber'', a ''celebrated site''. He describes the old town with Nietzsche as an architectural palimpsest that always keeps the memory of the past in the minds of city dwellers, no matter how often it is overwritten. He explains this thesis using the example of the new building at ''Großer Rebstock'' (Markt 8) and the reconstruction at ''Braubachstraße 21''. In contrast, the Technical City Hall, "rammed as a concrete juggernaut in the middle of the previously closed row of houses on Braubachstrasse", had remained a provocative and ignorant foreign body in the urban fabric for decades. In spite of its architectural quality, this was his doom.<ref>Dieter Bartetzko: [https://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/umbaumassnahmen-in-der-frankfurter-altstadt-13531714.html ''Mut zum Traum''], in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 11 April 2015.</ref>Public criticism and approval accompanied the project from the start. The lines of argumentation often followed the same pattern as since the beginning of the reconstruction debate immediately after the destruction. Dieter Bartetzko compares the old town with an unfathomably deep fountain that draws on the myths of the past and gives life in the present. He recalls that the fountain on the chicken market was drilled as early as Roman times and that the Carolingian people were probably already aware that they lived on historical ground. This explains why Frankfurt was referred to in its first documentary mention in 794 as a ''locus celeber'', a ''celebrated site''. He describes the old town with Nietzsche as an architectural palimpsest that always keeps the memory of the past in the minds of city dwellers, no matter how often it is overwritten. He explains this thesis using the example of the new building at ''Großer Rebstock'' (Markt 8) and the reconstruction at ''Braubachstraße 21''. In contrast, the Technisches Rathaus, "rammed as a concrete juggernaut in the middle of the previously closed row of houses on Braubachstrasse", had remained a provocative and ignorant foreign body in the urban fabric for decades. In spite of its architectural quality, this was his doom.<ref>Dieter Bartetzko: [https://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/umbaumassnahmen-in-der-frankfurter-altstadt-13531714.html ''Mut zum Traum''], in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 11 April 2015.</ref>
[[Dankwart Guratzsch]] points to the broad consensus in which the reconstruction was decided. "It is the will of a committed citizenry ... It is a piece of civic pride that manifests itself in these houses, and the best craftsmen, artists, monument experts and architects contribute to it ... The citizen of the almost digitally located society insures the lost anchor of its origin and provides it with rock solid reinforcement made of cement".<ref>Dankwart Guratzsch: [https://www.welt.de/print/welt_kompakt/kultur/article139250653/Aber-bitte-richtig-alt.html ''Warum uns städtische Rekonstruktion gut tut – Frankfurt baut sein prächtiges historisches Zentrum neu auf.''] In: ''[[Die Welt]]'', 8 April 2015.</ref>[[Dankwart Guratzsch]] points to the broad consensus in which the reconstruction was decided. "It is the will of a committed citizenry ... It is a piece of civic pride that manifests itself in these houses, and the best craftsmen, artists, monument experts and architects contribute to it ... The citizen of the almost digitally located society insures the lost anchor of its origin and provides it with rock solid reinforcement made of cement".<ref>Dankwart Guratzsch: [https://www.welt.de/print/welt_kompakt/kultur/article139250653/Aber-bitte-richtig-alt.html ''Warum uns städtische Rekonstruktion gut tut – Frankfurt baut sein prächtiges historisches Zentrum neu auf.''] In: ''[[Die Welt]]'', 8 April 2015.</ref>

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