Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

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Early daoistic tradition

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Revision as of 14:56, 15 May 2024
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{{Blockquote | The Yellow Emperor (Huangdi) had a saying: 'Between superior and inferior each day there are a hundred conflicts.' Inferiors conceal their selfishness, with which to take advatage of their superiors. Superiors keep the measures and methods (fa), with which to control their inferiors.' (Han Feizi chapter 8){{sfn|Yu-Lan|1952|p=327}}}}{{Blockquote | The Yellow Emperor (Huangdi) had a saying: 'Between superior and inferior each day there are a hundred conflicts.' Inferiors conceal their selfishness, with which to take advatage of their superiors. Superiors keep the measures and methods (fa), with which to control their inferiors.' (Han Feizi chapter 8){{sfn|Yu-Lan|1952|p=327}}}}
Together with a ''changing with the times'' paradigm ("move with the seasons, and respond to the transformation of things"),{{sfn|Smith|2003|pp=144}} Sima Qian characterizes what he dubs the Daojia or Dao-school by the 'xingming' administrative practice of Shen Buhai and Han Fei, functioning as an assembly of ministers contracted by a preferably inactive ruler. The [[Shiji]] asserts the First Emperor as proclaiming it's practice. The Han adopts Qin administration, villainizing the First Emperor as arrogant and inflexible, but mainly blaming the second emperor for the fall of the Qin. Daojia comes to mean Daoism a century after Sima Qian's death. With the ascension of Confucian orthodoxy, [[Emperor Wu of Han]] (141-87bce) dismisses the Yellow Emperor Daoists, Xingming theoreticians and those of other philosophies.Together with a ''changing with the times'' paradigm ("move with the seasons, and respond to the transformation of things"),{{sfn|Smith|2003|pp=144}} Sima Qian characterizes what he dubs the Daojia or Dao-school by the 'xingming' administrative practice of Shen Buhai and Han Fei, functioning as an assembly of ministers contracted by a preferably inactive ruler. The [[Shiji]] asserts the First Emperor as proclaiming it's practice. Combinations of Shen Buhai, Shang Yang and Han Fei became common starting in early Han dynasty literature, including the Huang-Lao [[Huainanzi]], and Daojia comes to mean Daoism a century after Sima Qian's death. The Han adopts Qin administration, villainizing the First Emperor as arrogant and inflexible, but mainly blaming the second emperor for the fall of the Qin. With the ascension of Confucian orthodoxy, [[Emperor Wu of Han]] (141-87bce) dismisses the Yellow Emperor Daoists, Xingming theoreticians and those of other philosophies.
The [[Book of Han]] (111ce) relegates the four figures as Fajia Legalists; but the Han Feizi is the earliest document that can be seen to connect Shen Buhai and Shang Yang, contrasting the two.{{sfnm|1a1=Smith|1y=2003|1p=129-131,141|2a1=Creel|2y=1970|2p=86,93-95,113,120|3a1=Pines|3y=2017|3p=26|4a1=Makeham|4y=1994|4p=180}}{{sfnm|1a1=Lewis|1y=2010|1p=42,72|2a1=Pines|2y=2009|2p=110|3a1=Pines|3y=2014|3p=116-117}} Taken as advocating fact-checking, supervision and accountability to abolish the punishment of ministers, Shen Buhai would be relevant for law, but [[Liu Xiang (scholar)|Liu Xiang]] could still distinguish between him and Shang Yang, associated with harsh penal law.{{sfn|Creel|1970|pp=86,101}} No one ever called himself a Fajia ("fa-school" abstract category).{{sfn|Goldin|2011|p=93(5)}} In the early Han, many would seem to have preferred Shen Buhai to Shang Yang; while some undoubtedly combined them, many of his likely proponents were prominent Confucians that would not appear to have done so.{{sfn|Creel|1970|p=120}}The [[Book of Han]] (111ce) relegates the four figures as Fajia Legalists; but the Han Feizi is the earliest document that can be seen to connect Shen Buhai and Shang Yang, contrasting the two.{{sfnm|1a1=Smith|1y=2003|1p=129-131,141|2a1=Creel|2y=1970|2p=86,93-95,113,120|3a1=Pines|3y=2017|3p=26|4a1=Makeham|4y=1994|4p=180}}{{sfnm|1a1=Lewis|1y=2010|1p=42,72|2a1=Pines|2y=2009|2p=110|3a1=Pines|3y=2014|3p=116-117}}{{sfn|Pines|2023}} Taken as advocating fact-checking, supervision and accountability to abolish the punishment of ministers, Shen Buhai would be relevant for law, but [[Liu Xiang (scholar)|Liu Xiang]] could still distinguish between him and Shang Yang, associated with harsh penal law.{{sfn|Creel|1970|pp=86,101}} No one ever called himself a Fajia ("fa-school" abstract category).{{sfn|Goldin|2011|p=93(5)}} In the early Han, many would seem to have preferred Shen Buhai to Shang Yang; while some undoubtedly combined them, many of his likely proponents were prominent Confucians that would not appear to have done so.{{sfn|Creel|1970|p=120}}
==Administrative focus====Administrative focus==

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