Forum of the Democratic Right

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{{Short description|Political party in Poland}}

{{Infobox political party
| name = Forum of the Democratic Right
| native_name = {{native name|pl|Forum Prawicy Demokratycznej}}
| colorcode = #667191
| split =
| predecessor = Polish Political Movement
| successor = [[Democratic Union (Poland)|Democratic Union]]
| logo =
| founder = Aleksander Hall<br />[[Stanisław Somma]]<br />[[Jerzy Dietl]]<br />[[Tadeusz Syryjczyk]]<br />[[Micał Wojtczak]]<br />[[Tomasz Wołek]]<br />[[Henryk Woźniakowski]]<br />[[Michał Chałoński]]
| leader = [[Aleksander Hall]]
| ideology = [[Liberal conservatism]]<br />[[Economic liberalism]]<br />[[Reformism]]
| position = [[Centre-right politics|Centre-right]]
| membership = ~1000
| foundation = 27 June 1990
| dissolved = 11 May 1991
| country = Poland
| colours =
| national =
}}

The '''Forum of the Democratic Right''' ({{lang-pl|Forum Prawicy Demokratycznej}}, '''FPD''') was a [[conservatism|conservative]] [[List of political parties in Poland|political party]] in Poland.<ref name=Dudek>{{cite book |last=Dudek |first=Antoni |date=2023 |title=Historia polityczna Polski 1989–2023 |trans-title=Polish political history 1989-2023 |url=https://scholar.com.pl/pl/glowna/8768-historia-polityczna-polski-19892023.html |location=Warsaw |language=Polish |publisher=Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar |isbn=978-83-67450-66-9}}</ref>

==History==
===Background===
[[File:Aleksander Hall 2006.JPG|thumb|Party leader Aleksander Hall, 2006]]
In July 1979, the {{ill|Young Poland Movement|pl|Ruch Młodej Polski}} (RMP) split off from the [[Movement for Defence of Human and Civic Rights]]. The Movement was a rightwing [[anti-communism in Poland|anti-communist]] opposition group founded in July 1979, setting the reclamation of total sovereignty as its primary goal.

In 15 September 1989, the radical, [[National Democracy (Poland)|National Democratic]], [[National Catholicism|National Catholic]] branch of RMP took part in the creation of the [[Christian National Union]]. Their departure from RMP deprived the Movement of a large part of its members, and quickly led to its collapse. The moderate, centre-right branch established the Polish Political Movement ({{native name|pl|Ruch Polityki Polskiej}}, '''RPP''').

A precursor to FPD, the short-lived "Democratic Christian-Liberal Forum" ({{lang-pl|Demokratyczne Forum Chrześcijańsko-Liberalne}}) was founded on 15 June 1990. It existed as a member of the Kraków-based Alliance for Democracy ({{lang-pl|Sojusz na rzecz Demokracji}}).<ref name=Szyc/>

===FPD as a party===
The Forum was founded on 27 June 1990, by representatives of different political groupings - members of RPP, several economic, commercial, and industrial councils, academic unions, newspaper editors, representatives of several [[Voivodeship sejmik|sejmiks]], aswell as several major political figures: Senators [[Stanisław Somma]] and [[Jerzy Dietl]], Minister [[Tadeusz Syryjczyk]], Deputy Minister [[Michal Wojtczak]], deputy editor-in-chief of [[Życie Warszawy]] [[Tomasz Wołek]], [[Henryk Woźniakowski]], Sejm Representative [[Michał Chałoński]] and, as a guest, Minister and future FPD leader [[Aleksander Hall]]. Therein it declared its intentions of creating a "big-tent Alliance for Democracy" and support for [[Prime Minister of Poland|Prime Minister]] [[Tadeusz Mazowiecki]] and his government.<ref name=Borowik>{{cite book |last=Borowik |first=Bogdan |date=2011 |title=PARTIE KONSERWATYWNE W POLSCE 1989-2001 |url=https://phavi.umcs.pl/at/attachments/2023/0220/082952-partie-konserwatywne-w-polsce-1989-2001.pdf |publisher=WYDAWNICTWO UNIWERSYTETU MARII CURIE-SKŁODOWSKIEJ |isbn=978-83-227-3158-1}}</ref>

The Forum often cooperated with the [[Citizens' Movement for Democratic Action]] ({{lang-pl|Ruch Obywatelski Akcja Demokratyczna}}, '''ROAD'''). The two were crucial allies in Mazowiecki's political battle against Solidarność leader [[Lech Wałęsa]], and supported the Prime Minister's candidacy in the [[1990 Polish presidential election]]. Mazowiecki decisively lost the election, falling third behind [[dark horse candidate]] [[Stanisław Tymiński]]. ROAD and FPD reluctantly endorsed Wałesa in the second round, which led to his election as the [[President of Poland]] with a decisive 74.25% of the vote. The humiliated Mazowiecki would resign from the office of Prime Minister on 12 January 1991, which cast FPD and ROAD into de-facto parliamentary opposition.<ref name=Szyc>{{cite book |last=Dehnel-Szyc |first=Małgorzata |date=1991 |title=GRY Polityczne Orientacje na Dziś |trans-title=Political Moves Orientations for Today |url=https://owvolumen.pl/ksiegarnia/gry-polityczne-orientacje-na-dzis/ |language=Polish |isbn=83-85218-19-X}}</ref>

During the first Congress of the FPD on 3-9 November 1990, it elected Hall as its leader, and declared an intention to co-found a larger political formation with ROAD.<ref name=Szyc/>

===Dissolution===
On 11 May 1991, the FPD came into agreement with ROAD to form a new political party, the [[Democratic Union (Poland)|Democratic Union]] (UD), wherein they would contend the [[1991 Polish parliamentary election]] together. The Democratic Union would win 62 seats, becoming the largest party in the First Sejm, until FPD's members left UD later in the First Sejm's term.

==Ideology==
The party was compared to [[Christian democracy|Christian democratic]], [[conservatism|conservative]], [[liberalism|liberal]] and [[Polish nationalism|nationalist]] formations. It espoused the [[rule of law]], [[semi-presidential republic|strong executive powers]] and [[reformism]]. It claimed to be based on [[Christian values]].

Economically, it supported [[free market economics]], [[private ownership]], [[Balcerowicz Plan|privatization]] and [[reprivatization]], seeking to replicate the [[Economic history of Spain|Spanish]] or [[Economic history of Italy|Italian]] economic models. It also supported privatizing and demonopolizing the [[insurance|insurance system]]. It also advocated for [[European integration]].

In terms of foreign policy, it supported reconciliation with reunited [[Germany]] and the [[Soviet Union]] (later [[Russia]]).<ref name=Szyc/>

==Electoral results==
===Presidential===
{| class=wikitable
|-
! rowspan=2|Election year
! rowspan=2|Candidate
! colspan=2|1st round
! rowspan=2 colspan=2|2nd round
|-
! # of votes
! % of vote
|-
! [[1990 Polish presidential election|1990]]
| '''[[Tadeusz Mazowiecki]]'''
| 2,973,264
| 18.08 (#3)
| colspan="2"| ''Supported '''[[Lech Wałęsa]]'''''
|}

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