Capture of Tabriz (1635)

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After Shah Abbas I passed away in January 1629, the [[Safavid Iran|Safavid Empire]] had managed to restore its borders, reclaiming territories such as [[Azerbaijan]], Arabic Iraq, Ahalsikh in Southern Georgia, and parts of Eastern Georgia. His successor and grandson, Shah Sefi I (1629-1642), relocated the royal residence back to Kazvin.<ref name=":1">{{Cite book |last=Farrokh |first=Kaveh |url= |title=Iran at War: 1500-1988 |date=2011-12-20 |publisher=Bloomsbury Publishing |isbn=978-1-78096-240-5 |pages=67 |language=en}}</ref><ref name=":0">{{Cite book |last=Feldman |first=Walter |url= |title=Music of the Ottoman Court: Makam, Composition and the Early Ottoman Instrumental Repertoire |date=2023-12-18 |publisher=BRILL |isbn=978-90-04-53126-0 |pages=59 |language=en}}</ref>

In the spring of 1634, news reached the Shah's court about Ottoman Sultan Murad IV's intentions to reconquer lost territories in Azerbaijan. As a response, the Safavids decided to concentrate their forces in Tabriz. The Ottoman invasion, led by Murad IV, commenced from Erzurum on August 8. They quickly besieged the city of Iravan, but the siege was short-lived. Tahmasib-Kulu Khan, the commander of the fortress garrison, betrayed Isfahan palace and fled, leading to the Ottoman army redirecting their efforts southeastward towards [[Tabriz]].<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":0" />

Upon receiving orders from [[Safi of Persia|Shah Safi I]], the Iranian military commander, Rustam Khan, evacuated the population of Tabriz and ordered the city's devastation. Following these orders, the Safavid army retreated. The Ottomans occupied Tabriz without encountering resistance, and [[Murad IV]] ordered the destruction of the city. Turkish historians described how Ottoman soldiers demolished tall buildings and grand palaces, dismantling and carrying away window frames made by skilled craftsmen, many of which were adorned with sky-blue or azure colors.<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":0" /><ref>{{Cite book |last=Cooper |first=J. P. |url= |title=The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 4, The Decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War, 1609-48/49 |date=1970-11-02 |publisher=CUP Archive |isbn=978-0-521-29713-4 |language=en}}</ref>

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